Flash Back Friday

Construction, Steel

tyne bridge

It is exciting to know that there are some early iron and steel bridges still in use today. The world’s first cast iron bridge was built at Coalbrookdale, Telford, England, in 1779 and is still in use today carrying occasional light transport and pedestrians.

Until 1840 the construction material used was either cast iron or wrought iron or a combination of both. In the early 1800s cast iron was beginning to be replaced by wrought iron and many of the early railway bridges were built of riveted wrought iron construction.

It was not until the late 1800s that steel began to replace wrought iron and by the early 1900s wrought iron was no longer available, as worldwide, steel makers had moved to producing carbon steel, a much more reliable material.

Chronology

1857 Weichsel Bridge, Dirscham, East Prussia was the first large wrought iron girder railway bridge to be built in Germany.
1863 Menangle Viaduct, New South Wales, Australia is the oldest existing railway bridge in Australia. It has two wrought iron riveted box girders and originally had three equal spans of 49.4m. However, these spans have now been halved by the addition of intermediate piers to allow the bridge to accommodate heavier loading.
1870 Kymijoki railway bridge, Koria, Finland, was the first 3-span steel truss bridge built in Finland. Originally for a railway, this riveted bridge was converted to carry road traffic in 1923, and is still in use today as a footbridge.
1883 Brooklyn Bridge, USA, was the first steel wire and steel bridge to be built in the world.
1884 Garabit Viaduct, St.Flour, France, built by Gustav Eiffel is one of the first wrought iron truss arch bridges to be built in the world.
1888 Tenryugawa Bridge – First railway bridge built in Japan using steel.
1890 First major steel cantilever railway bridge in the world, over the Forth near Edinburgh, Scotland.
1897 Eitaibashi Bridges – First steel highway bridge built in Japan, used 690Mpa steel developed for navy vessels.

Most of these structures are still in use today.

In the mid 1900s the use of welding brought major changes to the steel fabrication industry. In some countries however it took until the 1960s before rivets became obsolete and bolted and welded construction took over.

From the 1930s many of the large structures being built were of steel. Notable examples include:

  • 1931 – George Washington Suspension Bridge, USA.
  • 1932 – Sydney Harbour Bridge, Australia.
  • 1936 – Hangang Bridge, Seoul, Korea – Tied-arch with 6 spans of 63.5m (totaling 381m).
  • 1937 – Golden Gate suspension bridge, San Francisco, USA.

From the 1950s steel has become more competitive for highway bridges in the medium span range 45m – 100m. Today the competitiveness of steel is being realised over all span ranges, as steel makers and fabricators work closely together. The introduction of new high strength steels, modern fabrication workshops (with automatic welding girder lines), and the availability of very large cranes for handling and erection are some of the reasons why steel is so competitive.

Cited: WorldSteel

Ashley G. // Editor SMC

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What Makes Stainless Steel a Sustainable Material?

Stainless, Steel, Sustainability

Sustainable

 

People

The material, in its use or in its production process, respects
the human being, especially in terms of health and safety.
A sustainable material does not harm the people working
to produce it, or the people who handle it during its use,
recycling and ultimate disposal.
Stainless steel is not harmful to people during either its
production or use. A protective layer forms naturally on all
stainless steels because of the inclusion of chromium. The
passive layer protects the steel from corrosion – ensuring a
long life. As long as the correct grade of stainless is selected
for an application, the steel remains inert and harmless to the
people who handle it and the environment.
These characteristics have made stainless steel the primary
material in medical, food processing, household and catering
applications.

Planet

The emission footprints of the material, especially those related
to carbon, water and air, are minimised. Reuse and recyclability
are at high levels. The material has low maintenance costs and
a long life, both key indicators that the impact of the material
on the planet is at the lowest levels possible.
The electric arc furnace (EAF), the main process used to
make stainless steels, is extremely efficient. An EAF has a low
impact on the environment in terms of both CO2 and other
emissions. The EAF is also extremely efficient at processing
scrap stainless, ensuring that new stainless steel has an
average recycled content of more than 60%.
Stainless steels are easily recycled to produce more stainless
steels and this process can be carried on indefinitely. It is
estimated that about 80% of stainless steels are recycled at
the end of their life. As stainless steel has a high intrinsic
value, it is collected and recycled without any economic
incentives from the public purse.

Profit

The industries producing the material show long-term
sustainability and growth, provide excellent reliability and
quality for their customers, and ensure a solid and reliable
supply-chain to the end consumer.
Choosing the right stainless steel grade for an application
ensures that it will have low maintenance costs, a long life and
be easy to recycle at the end of that life. This makes stainless an
economical choice in consumer durables (such as refrigerators
and washing machines) and in capital goods applications (such
as transportation, chemical and process applications).
Stainless steels also have better mechanical properties than
most metals. Its fire and corrosion resistance make stainless
a good choice in transportation, building or public works such
as railways, subways, tunnels and bridges. These properties,
together with stainless steel’s mechanical behaviour, are of
prime importance in these applications to ensure human
beings are protected and maintenance costs are kept low.
Stainless also has an aesthetically pleasing appearance,
making it the material of choice in demanding architectural
and design projects.

Taking into account its recyclability, reuse, long life, low
maintenance and product safety, the emissions from the
production and use of stainless steels are minimal when
compared to any other alternative material. A detailed and
precise analysis of the sustainability of stainless steel makes
the choice of stainless a logical one. This might explain why,
as society and governments are becoming more conscious of
environmental and economic factors, the growth in the use of
stainless steel has been the highest of any material in the world.

Sited: WorldStainless

Ashley G. // Editor SMC

New Times Call For New Solutions

Stainless, Steel, Sustainability

LCA

It is time the world starts to look at the larger picture.  The following facts may lead you to question yourself or someone else during your next decision phase. We must remember that costs are not only those we see in the direct manufacturing of a product but also hidden in the use and recycling phases.

Key facts:

  • Life cycle assessment (LCA) is vital for the future. Environmental regulations that only regulate one phase (the use phase) of a product’s life cycle can create unintended consequences, such as increased CO2 emissions.
  • One example of this is vehicle exhaust or tail pipe regulations which encourage the use of low density materials which are more CO2intensive to produce.
  • LCA considers production, manufacture, the use phase and end-of-life recycling and disposal. Life cycle thinking leads to immediate environmental benefit.
  • In addition to CO2, LCA assesses other impacts such as resource consumption, energy demand and acidification.
  • LCA is easy to implement, cost effective and produces affordable and beneficial solutions for material decision-making and product design.
  • Worldsteel developed one of the first global sector databases for life cycle inventory data and invests to keep it current.

 

Cited: World Steel

Ashley G. // Editor SMC

Steel The Green Option

Stainless, Steel

steel pipes

The figures by APEAL, the Association of European Producers of Steel for Packaging, indicate that in 2012, 2.7 million tonnes of steel packaging were recycled, corresponding to an average European rate of 74%. This reinforces the long-term trend for steel as the most recycled packaging material in Europe.

Steel packaging’s recycling rate has increased threefold over the last 20 years and steel remains the most recycled packaging material in Europe. Plastic, beverage cartons, aluminium and glass have rates of 35%, 39%, 68% and 70% respectively (source: APEAL).

Alexander Mohr, Secretary General of APEAL, commented: “While steel maintains its position as the most recycled packaging material in Europe, it is clear there is still some work to be done in order for the industry to hit its vision of 80% recycling rate by 2020.”

According to the Steel Recycling Institute, for the US, the overall recycling rate for steel in 2012 was 88%, with nearly 84 million tonnes of steel recycled. This included the more than 1.3 million tons of tin plate steel – the equivalent of 21 billion steel cans, which were recycled at a rate of 71%, the highest among packaging materials.

“The steel industry’s internationally-recognised energy efficiency, coupled with the recycling rate that is the highest of any material, proves our commitment to sustainability and resource conservation,” said Thomas J. Gibson, president and CEO, American Iron and steel Institute.

Steel products naturally contribute to resource conservation through their lightweight potential, durability and recyclability. Steel is 100% recyclable. It can be infinitely recycled without loss of key properties, ensuring that the resources invested in its production are not lost and can be infinitely reused. Steel recycling accounts for significant raw material and energy savings.

Due to its magnetic properties, steel is easy to separate from waste streams, enabling high recovery rates.

Recovery rates differ from recycling rates. For example, about 85% of automobiles are recovered for recycling, and nearly 100% of the steel in these recovered vehicles is recycled. More than 1,400 kg of iron ore, 740 kg of coal, and 120 kg of limestone are saved for one tonne of steel scrap made into new steel.
Table 1: Post-consumer steel product recovery rates by sector – worldsteel estimates

Sector Recovery rate 2007 (%) Recovery 2050 (%) Life cycle in years
Construction 85% 90% 40 to 70
Automotive 85% 90% 7 to 15
Machinery 90% 95% 10 to 20
Electrical and domestic appliances 50% 65% 4 to 10
Weighted global average 83% 90% N/A

 

Steel is the most recycled industrial material in the world, with over 500 Mt recycled annually, including pre- and post-consumer scrap. Over 22 billion tonnes of steel has been recycled worldwide since 1900 owing to steel’s 100% recyclability.

View our website for more information or contact our professional team through our inquiry system by clicking here.

Cited: World Steel

Ashley G. // Editor SMC

Use Our Stainless Steel Foil

Foil, Stainless, Steel

Stainless Steel Foil

Shanghai Metal Corporation’s Stainless Steel Foil is used as material for the isolation of various parts and pieces. It protects against all kinds of corrosion of parts in manufacturing processes, since it is very convenient for practical application and processing. This stainless steel foil can be easily cut with scissors as a conventional metal.

Are you yourself aware of the applications of Stainless Steel Foil? 

1. Electronic Components: 
a) Mobile phone Outer shell
b) Disc switch
c) Etching parts
d) Electronic stamping parts
e) Electron gun parts
f) Optical fiber cable protection tubes

2. Auto Parts: 
a) Cylinder Gasket
b) Piston expansion ring
c) End cap of Auto filter.
d) Decoration strip

3. Kitchen appliance: 
a) Stainless Steel Kitchenware
b) Kitchen benches

4. Textile and light industry: 
a) Weaving machine shaft
b) Weaving machine loom reed

5. Medical Devices: 
a) Surgical Blade
b) Surgical Needle
c) Catheter stents for operation.

6. Construction Decoration: 
a) Elevator
b) Floor Heating
c) Other decorations
d) Pipe making

7. Aerospace: 
a) Aero turbine Fastener
b) Stainless steel membrane
c) Precision stainless steel capsule

View our website for more information or contact our professional team through our inquiry system by clicking here.

Ashley G. // Editor SMC

It A Matter Of Fact

Steel

Steel touches every aspect of our lives – no other material has the same unique combination of strength, formability and versatility

Steel construction


Key facts


 

  • Almost 200 billion cans of food are produced each year. Steel cans mean saving energy as refrigeration is not needed. Cans mean tamper-free and safe food, nutritional value and beneficial environmental impact from recycling.
  • Steel used for double-hulled capesize vessels delivering raw materials, finished goods and energy must have the highest impact toughness (to withstand constant wave motion), corrosion resistance (from sea water) and weldability (for manufacturing reasons).
  • Skyscrapers are made possible by steel. The housing and construction sector is the largest consumer of steel today, using around 50% of world steel production.
  • Approximately 25% of an average computer is made of steel. Over 305 million PCs were sold in 2012.

Steel looks after our health. Steel surfaces are hygienic and easy to clean. Surgical and safety equipment and commercial kitchens are all made with steel.

Cited: World Steel

Ashley G. // Editor SMC

We All Know About Apps But Do You Know About The Applications Of Alloy Stainless Steel?

Steel

ASTM International is one of the largest standards development organizations in the world. It is a trusted source for technical standards for stainless steel as well as other materials, products and systems. Most customers demand ASTM standard for steel products to ensure quality standards are met. Our SMC Stainless Steel meets ASTM standards every time.

Many stainless steel customers are looking for alloy stainless steel products. Below is a list of common applications provided in a simple table for your convenience.

Stainless Strip

 


Types of Stainless Steel Applications:


 

Types of applications:
High temperature Alloy Description
304H Alloy 304H stainless is probably the world’s most common stainless steel.
309 Alloy 309 stainless is best known for high temperature service.
310 Alloy 310 stainless, like 309, is best known for high temperature service.
446 Alloy 446 stainless is a high chromium ferritic stainless steel.
High strength 304H Alloy 304H stainless is probably the world’s most common stainless steel.
High corrosion-resistant 309 Alloy 309 stainless is best known for high temperature service.
310 Alloy 310 stainless, like 309, is best known for high temperature service.
317L Alloy 317L stainless is a low-carbon stainless steel.
321/321H Alloy 321 stainless is an austenitic stainless steel that contain stabilizing elements.
347/347H Alloy 347 stainless is an austenitic stainless steel that contain stabilizing elements.
446 Alloy 446 stainless is a high chromium ferritic stainless steel.
904L Alloy 904L stainless is a high alloy austenitic product.
High abrasion-resistant 317L Alloy 317L stainless is a low-carbon stainless steel.
410 Alloy 410 stainless is a martensitic stainless steel with high mechanical properties.

 Ashley G. // Editor SMC

“Clean Me” – Stainless Steel

Steel

Grain stainless

Stainless Steel is known for its ability to be a clean surface that resists corrosion and rust. Because of this stainless steel is a popular choice in kitchens and bathrooms. If you’ve had stainless steel around in your home for very long, you know that it has the potential to live up to its name. Dirt, dust and grime, however, put stainless steel at risk for corrosion and rust. Luckily, it responds well to cleaning, as long as certain rules are followed. In general, you want to start with the basics, and work your way up from there as needed.

Just like wood, steel also has a grain. These are the very faint striations that can be found on the surface of your appliance. An entire sheet of steel will have the same direction grain. That said, an appliance will usually have other steel pieces attached, such as handles and knobs. These other pieces may have a different direction grain, so make sure you are aware of this.

Will your appliance be ruined if you do not clean in the direction of the grain? Nope. Nothing dramatic will happen! Only that If you wipe perpendicular to the grain, more cleaning residue (mixed with any grime already on the steel) may get deeper into the tiny little crevices of the grain.

There are a few different methods that can be used to clean your stainless steel


No. 1


 

Routine cleaning can be accomplished by using warm water and a cloth. This is the least risky option for cleaning stainless steel, and honestly just plain water works to clean in most situations. Dry with a towel or cloth to prevent water spots. This is really important, since minerals in water can leave marks on stainless steel. Wipe in the directions of the polish lines for best and most beautiful results. Microfiber cleaning cloths can be a great option to use when cleaning stainless steel because they do a great job of absorbing all of the water without scratching the surface.

 


No. 2


For cleaning that needs more power, mild detergent and warm water can do a great job without damaging your stainless steel. A drop of mild dish detergent and warm water is often all you need to get tougher dirt off of your stainless steel. You can start with a small sink of warm water with a few drops of dish soap. You can also have a small drop of dish soap on a cloth. Add warm water to the cloth and rub the dish soap to suds up your cleaning cloth. Wipe down the dirty area. After you’ve finished washing away the dirt, make sure you rinse the surface thoroughly to prevent staining and spotting. It is important to towel dry to prevent water spots which can be caused by minerals in water.


No. 3


Fingerprints are one of the biggest complaints about stainless steel, but can be taken care of by using glass cleaner or household ammonia. Personally, I prefer glass cleaner. No matter what you decide to use, spray the cleaner on a microfiber cloth. You can spray directly on the stainless steel, but may end up with drips, or wasting a lot of cleaner that wasn’t needed. Wipe the stainless steel area gently in a circular motion to remove the finger print. Repeat as needed. Rinse thoroughly and towel dry. There are some newer types of finishes for stainless steel that resist fingerprints You may consider this a necessity if your pint-sized helpers leave their mark on your stainless steel appliances.


No. 4


 

If you have had staining or scratching, or need to polish your stainless steel, a stainless steel cleaner may be a good option. Some of these cleaners and polishes can help minimize scratching and remove stains. They also can polish surfaces nicely. Read the directions on the stainless steel cleaner and test in an inconspicuous spot. Be sure to rinse thoroughly and towel dry.

 

See your website for more stainless steel applications by clicking here.

Cited: About Home

Ashley G. // Editor SMC

The Look Is… Everything.

Steel

Mirror Fruit Bowl

 

Stainless Steel Mirror Sheet also referred to as a No.8 Finish, represents the smoothest of surfaces. As such, the finish has no grain and high reflective quality similar to that of a glass mirror. Utilizing micro-abrasive substances, we can provide such stainless steel sheet finishes as well as a guarantee of superior quality and prompt delivery.

Shanghai Metal Corporation is a company which is engaged in the manufacture and supply of a wide range of metal products such as Mirror Stainless Steel Sheets, which are used in a wide range of industries for various applications, and are currently high on demand in the market. These sheets are rust proof, reasonably priced and are exported to customers all over the globe.These sheets also have a very sturdy make and they are available in a range of sizes, shapes and thicknesses.

Click on the link to see a complete overview of this superior product available at SMC, don’t fall behind on the latest trend: http://goo.gl/ZWpOAP 

mirror steel

Ashley G. // Editor SMC

Are Dreams Becoming Reality?

Uncategorized

3D printer

Three-dimensional printers are expanding their repertoire every day. Now researchers around the world are using the technology to manufacture structural steel and metal components. Arup, headquartered in London, recently announced that it has developed a method to 3D print complex structural steel components for construction projects in a manner that reduces material cost and waste. Salomé Galjaard, a senior designer in Arup’s Amsterdam office, notes that the process can achieve the fluid shapes and complex geometries that architects often desire—and more structurally efficient components.

“It could be a great source of inspiration and could result in completely different building types,” says Salomé  “Your imagination is really the limitation with this.”

While Arup and the ESA are printing structural metal products, researchers at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), in Germany, are using 3D laser lithography to print micro-trusses and micro-shell structures from ceramic material, which is then coated by aluminum oxide for increased strength. These micro-scale products are less dense than water, yet stronger on a strength-to-weight ratio than some forms of steel.

“It has been a longstanding effort to create materials with low density but high strength,” the researchers wrote in a paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

After studying the composition of wood and bone, which generally have high tensile strength because of their porous composition, the team developed honeycomb-shaped microstructures that achieved the research objectives: They were lighter than 1,000 kilogram per cubic meter (62.4 pounds per cubic foot), or the density of water, and could withstand 280 megapascals (40,610 pounds per square inch), making it stronger than some forms of steel.

Although computer simulations had indicated that such materials could be created, the tools to develop them at the “scale of a human hair” only came to being recently, according to an article from The Conversation. But KIT researchers used a new laser system from Nanoscribe, a spin-off company of KIT, to make it a reality. Lead researcher Jens Bauer told The Conversation that “this is the first experimental proof that such materials can exist.” Nanoscribe’s system is currently limited to objects that are tens of micrometers in size. Despite additive manufacturing’s advances and potential for fabricating structural metal products, Arup’s Galjaard doesn’t expect the technology to replace traditional manufacturing soon.

“It’s fantastic and it’s beautiful, but it’s not the solution for everything.”

Citation: Architect – The Magazine of the American Institute of Architects

Ashley G. // Editor SMC